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Artificial Intelligence

What is Artificial Intelligence?

In 1956, a summer workshop at Dartmouth Coullege brought together ten researchers interested in the study of machine intelligence, and a new science - Artificial Intelligence- was born. Since to early 1950s, Artificial Intelligence technology was developed from curiosity of a few reserchers to a value tool to support human making decisions.

Artificial Intelligence is a science that has define its goals as making machines to do things that would require intelligence if done by humans.

”A machine is thought intelligent if it can achive human-level performans in some cognitive tasks. To built an inteligent machine we have to capture, organize and use human expert knowledge in some problem area” (Negnevitsky, 2002).

More about AI

One of the fascinating aspects of the field of Artificial Intelligence is the is that the precise nature of its subject matter turns out to be surprisingly difficult to define (Fetzer, 1990).

Scope and Limits

Computer science defines AI research as the study of “intelligent agents”: any device that perceives its environment and takes actions that maximize its chance of successfully achieving its goals. A more elaborate definition characterizes AI as “a system’s ability to correctly interpret external data, to learn from such data, and to use those learnings to achieve specific goals and tasks through flexible adaptation.”

Definitions

John McCarthy, widely recognized as one of the godfathers of Artificial Intelligence, defined it as “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines”.

Some more definitions of Artificial Intelligence are:

  • A branch of computer science dealing with the simulation of intelligent behavior in computers.
  • The capability of a machine to imitate intelligent human behavior.
  • A computer system able to perform tasks that normally require human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages.

The concept of what defines Artificial Intelligence has changed over time, but at the core there has always been the idea of building machines which are capable of thinking like humans.

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How Is Artificial Intelligence Used In Education

A recent study from eSchool News discovered that the use of Artificial intelligence in the education industry will grow by 47.5% through 2021. The technology’s impact will exist anywhere from kindergarten through higher education to corporate training, offering the opportunity to create adaptive learning features with personalized tools to improve learners' experience.

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Artificial intelligence in U.S. education will grow by 47.5% from 2017-2021 according to the Artificial Intelligence Market in the US Education Sector report.

Most of the experts mention:

  • Presence of teachers in education process is irreplaceable.
  • There will be many changes to a teacher’s job and to educational best practices.
  • Artificial Intelligence in education: work together for the best outcome for students. It’s important that educational institutions expose students to and use the technology.
  • Artificial Intelligence will allow a level of differentiation that’s impossible for teachers who have to manage 30 students in each class.
  • Artificial intelligence tools can help make global classrooms available to all including those who speak different languages or who might have visual or hearing impairments.
  • Artificial Intelligence steps in to automate admin tasks, it opens up more time for teachers to spend with each student. There is much potential for AI to create more efficient enrollment and admissions processes.
  • Artificial Intelligence means Tutoring and studying programs, able to respond to a range of learning styles.

If you want to read more about using AI in educational process, click here.

Quotes About Artificial Intelligence

  • “A year spent in artificial intelligence is enough to make one believe in God.” —Alan Perlis
  • “There is no reason and no way that a human mind can keep up with an artificial intelligence machine by 2035.” —Gray Scott
  • “Is artificial intelligence less than our intelligence?” —Spike Jonze
  • “By far, the greatest danger of Artificial Intelligence is that people conclude too early that they understand it.” —Eliezer Yudkowsky
  • “The sad thing about artificial intelligence is that it lacks artifice and therefore intelligence.” —Jean Baudrillard
  • “Some people worry that artificial intelligence will make us feel inferior, but then, anybody in his right mind should have an inferiority complex every time he looks at a flower.” —Alan Kay (adapted from https://www.forbes.com)

Find more quotes about Artificial Intelligence here.

The Top 10 Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning Use Cases

Machine learning represents a major step forward in how computers can learn.

Ex. Online Search

Perhaps the most famous use of machine learning, Google and its competitors are constantly improving what the search engine understands. Every time you execute a search on Google, the program watches how you respond to the results. If you click the top result and stay on that web page, we can assume you got the information you were looking for and the search was a success. If, on the other hand, you click to the second page of results, or type in a new search string without clicking any of the results, we can surmise that the search engine didn’t serve up the results you wanted — and the program can learn from that mistake to deliver a better result in the future.

Smart Cars

IBM recently surveyed top auto executives, and 74% expected that we would see smart cars on the road by 2025. A smart car would not only integrate into the Internet of Things, but also learn about its owner and its environment. It might adjust the internal settings — temperature, audio, seat position, etc. — automatically based on the driver, report and even fix problems itself, drive itself, and offer real time advice about traffic and road conditions.

Artificial Intelligence And Machine Learning In Practice

Bernard Marr presents some amazing ways artificial intelligence and machine learning are used behind the scenes to impact our everyday lives. For example, artificial intelligence and machine learning were used in social media, creative arts, energy, financial services, healthcare, manufacturing, media, retail, service.

  • ”Culinary arts require the human touch, right? Yes and no. AI-enabled Chef Watson from IBM offers a glimpse of how artificial intelligence can become a sous-chef in the kitchen to help develop recipes and advise their human counterparts on food combinations to create completely unique flavors. Working together, AI and humans can create more in the kitchen than working alone” (Marr, 2018).
  • ”Music-generating algorithms are now inspiring new songs. Given enough input—millions of conversations, newspaper headlines and speeches—insights are gleaned that can help create a theme for lyrics. There are machines such as Watson BEAT that can come up with different musical elements to inspire composers. AI helps musicians understand what their audiences want and to help determine more accurately what songs might ultimately be hits” (Marr, 2018).
  • ”AI and deep learning is being put to use to save lives by Infervision. In China, where there aren’t enough radiologists to keep up with the demand of reviewing 1.4 billion CT scans each year to look for early signs of lung cancer. Radiologists need to review hundreds of scans each day which is not only tedious, but human fatigue can lead to errors. Infervision trained and taught algorithms to augment the work of radiologists to allow them to diagnose cancer more accurately and efficiently” (Marr, 2018).

Click here to find more ways of using artificial intelligence and machine learning in practice.

How can we learn about Artificial Intelligence?

Bernard Marr presents some ways to learn about the principles and practices around artificial intelligence; he mention that today you don’t have to take years out of your life studying at university to become familiar with this seemingly hugely complex technology. He also note that a growing number of online courses have sprung up in recent years covering everything from the basics to advanced implementation.

One of the most general courses is ”Learn with Google AI” and covers the ground from a basic introduction to machine learning.

You can find here the best free online Artificial Intelligence courses available today!

Bibliography

Fetzer , J. H. (1990). Artificial Intelligence: its scope and limits . Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Negnevitsky , M. (2002). Artificial Intelligence-A Guide to Intelligence Systems. Harlow: Pearson Education Limited .

Pictures: https://pixabay.com/ro/images/search/

Didactic part

Find here inspirations and instructions for exercises to be applied in adult education. They were tested during common workshops. didactic_inspirations_artificial_intelligence.pdf


Author: Ciomaga Florentina, CJRAE Vrancea

Discussion

Elena, 2020/08/31 11:42
Foarte utila prezentarea.
Elena, 2020/08/31 11:43
De valorificat in activitatea didactica curenta.
Natalia, 2020/09/01 09:01
Partea didactica a sectiunii va fi de mare folos pentru formatorii in domeniul educatiei adultilor.
Anonymous, 2020/09/03 15:49
Now I have an idea about AI meaning.
Anonymous, 2020/09/03 15:49
Intr-o pagina simpla se regasesc informatii succinte si clarificatoare despre inteligenta artificiala.
Anonymous, 2020/09/03 15:50
In a short page I could read alot about AI (what is AI, how is used in education, quotes about AI, Machine learning and AI, and some suggestion about how can we learn more about AI).
Anonymous, 2020/09/03 15:50
Amazing! AI can be use to find food combinations to create completely unique flavors! Can we live without AI anymore?
Adriana Măimăscu, 2020/09/04 06:02
Congratulations for your contribution!:)
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contributions/artificial-intelligence.txt · Last modified: 2020/09/01 13:00 by Sophia Bickhardt

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Please cite as follows: "Empowering Digital Literacy" by DIGILIT project team, CC BY-SA 4.0