Systems thinking: the notion of treating the organization as a complex system composed of smaller and complex systems. This requires an understanding of the whole, as well as the components. Key elements: recognizing the complexity of the organization and having a long-term focus. Senge advocates the use of system maps that show how systems connect.
Personal mastery: a process where an individual strives to enhance his vision and focus his/her energy to be in a constant state of learning.
Mental models: “Deeply ingrained assumptions, generalizations, or even pictures and images that influence how we understand the world and how we take action” (Senge 1990). These must be recognized and challenged so as to allow for new ideas and changes.
Building shared vision: Shared vision is a powerful motivator. A leader's vision does not necessarily become shared by those below him. The key here is to pass on a picture of the future. To influence using dialogue, commitment, and enthusiasm, rather than to try to dictate. Storytelling is one possible tool that can be used here.
Team learning: The state where team members think together to achieve common goals. It builds on shared vision, adding the element of collaboration and collective decision-making processes.
Learning how to learn | Barbara Oakley | TEDxOaklandUniversity,
A self-directed learning experience | Saroj Thakur | TEDxDharamsala
The revolution of self-directed learning | Sean Bengry | TEDxFlourCity